The Madeira archipelago is known for its mild sub-tropical climate. The island has a very diverse landscape with 50% of the island being above 700m. This results in the rise to various micro-climates within a micro-climate.
During spring and summer the island is visited by warm winds, mixed with the moist from the sea. Together they form majestic clouds that overcomes (almost) each obstacle and cools everything going uphill, mostly on the north side.
Unfortunately for the clouds they need to climb very high to reach the other side of the island. The majestic mountains of the island shoulder the Atlantic winds from the southern lowlands around Funchal ... therefore allowing the city to enjoy more sunshine and lighter winds.
Madeira is strongly influenced by its geographical position and mountainous landscape. With the support of the Gulf stream the climate on the island manages to keep temperatures warm and pleasant all year round. Madeira has a micro-climate with average temperatures rarely falling outside the range of 17-24 degrees Celsius. The hottest months in Madeira are August and September, while January and February can be the coolest months with the highest average of rainfall.
The high central regions of Madeira can be often covered in cool mist during the morning. The northern parts of the island are often exposed to the Atlantic winds and experience higher rainfall.
The term 'capacete' is known in Madeira during the month of June, which means 'peaked cap' and it describes the blanket of cloud which sits above Funchal and its surroundings. The cloud descends from the mountains during the morning and returns back again during the mid-afternoon.
Another distinctiveness of the Madeira climate during the summer is the east wind coming from the Sahara called the 'Leste'. The wind brings with it a fine red/yellow dust and temperatures can rise to tropical values!